Daniell Koepke (via internal-acceptance-movement)
Dag nabit tumblr….
Genis Carreras - Philographics (2012) - Minimalist philosophy posters
January 1, 1803: Haiti Proclaims Itself Independent.
Two months after the Haitian slaves defeated the French colonists under the military leadership of Toussaint-Louverture and political leadership of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Jean-Jacques Dessalines proclaims Saint-Domingue as independent, renaming it Haiti after its original Arawak name.
In 1791, a slave rebellion commenced in the French colony, and Toussaint-Louverture, a former slave himself, assumed leadership over the rebels and declared war on the colonial population of Haiti. In 1795 Toussaint-Louverture made peace with France following its abolishment of slavery. Toussaint became governor of the colony and in 1801 Toussaint conquered the Spanish part of the island (modern day Dominican Republic), freeing the slaves there.
In January 1802, Napoleon sent an invasion force to Saint-Domingue and after several months of intense fighting, Toussaint agreed to a cease-fire. He then retired to his plantation but was captured in 1803, tortured and killed in the dungeons of the French Alps.
Once Toussaint had been killed, Napoleon spoke about his intentions to reintroduce slavery in Haiti as a result Dessalines led a new revolt against the French colonists. With the aid of the British Empire, Haiti was triumphant and on November 9, 1803 the French colonists surrendered. In 1804, Dessalines assumed power over Haiti and declared himself Emperor of Haiti. Dessaline was later killed during a revolt two years later.
When Haiti became independent it became the first independent nation in the Caribbean. The Haitian Revolution inspired revolutions all throughout Latin America and to this day Toussaint-Louverture is considered a hero all throughout Latin America. The establishment of the black state of Haiti, shook the institution of slavery all throughout Latin America, in which an entire society of slaves were turned into a self-governing people.
June 1987, Madonna was rushed to the Cedars Sinai hospital for an X-ray after her then-husband—Sean Penn hit her across the head with a baseball bat. At the time, they had been having a heart-to-heart talk about reconciling.
Madonna did not make an official complaint because Penn was about to serve a short jail term for attacking a film extra and violating the probation he’d been given for punching a fan. It was a decision she would come to regret. In the late afternoon of December 28, 1988, Penn scaled the wall surrounding the Malibu house and found Madonna alone in the master bedroom.
According to a report filed by Madonna with the Malibu sheriff’s office, the two began to quarrel. Penn told her he owned her “lock, stock and barrel”. When she told him she was leaving the house, he tried to bind her hands with an electric cord. Screaming and afraid, Madonna fled from the bedroom. Penn chased her into the living room, caught her and bound her to a chair with heavy twine. Then he threatened to shave her hair. Penn was “drinking liquor straight from the bottle” and the abuse went on for nine hours, during which he smacked and forced Madonna to perform a “degrading sex act” on him.
He went out to buy more alcohol, leaving Madonna bound and gagged. Some hours later, he returned and continued his attacks, then finally untied her. Madonna then fled the house and ran to her car. Penn ran after her and was banging on the windows of her Thunderbird while she spoke to police on her mobile phone. Fifteen minutes later, she staggered into the sheriff’s office.
sad.there’s really nothing new under the sun.